Peripheral vascular disease PVD is a blood circulation disorder that causes the blood vessels outside of your heart and brain to narrow, block, or spasm. This can happen in your arteries or veins. PVD typically causes pain and fatigueoften in your legs, and especially during exercise. The pain usually improves with rest.
In PVD, blood vessels become narrowed and blood flow decreases. In arteriosclerosis, plaques build up in a vessel and limit the flow of blood and oxygen to your organs and limbs. As plaque growth progresses, clots may develop and completely block the artery.
This can lead to organ damage and loss of fingers, toes, or limbs, if left untreated. Peripheral arterial disease PAD develops only in the arteries, which carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart. What is peripheral artery disease? Instead, your vessels widen and narrow in response other factors like brain signals and temperature changes. The narrowing causes blood flow to decrease. Organic PVD involves changes in blood vessel structure like inflammation, plaques, and tissue damage.
Your vessels naturally widen and narrow in response to your environment. But in functional PVD, your vessels exaggerate their response. For example, the plaque buildup from arteriosclerosis can cause your blood vessels to narrow. The primary causes of organic PVD are:. Additional causes of organic PVD include extreme injuries, muscles or ligaments with abnormal structures, blood vessel inflammation, and infection. For many people, the first signs of PVD begin slowly and irregularly. You may feel discomfort like fatigue and cramping in your legs and feet that gets worse with physical activity due to the lack of blood flow.
These symptoms are commonly brushed aside as the results of aging, but delayed diagnosis and treatment can cause further complications. In extreme cases of blood loss, gangreneor dead tissue, can occur. If you suddenly develop a cold, painful, pale limb with weak or no pulses, this is a medical emergency. You will require treatment as soon as possible in order to avoid severe complications and amputation.
Claudication is lower limb muscle pain when walking.Mangosteen Garcinia mangostana is an exotic, tropical fruit with a slightly sweet and sour flavor. The fruit is sometimes referred to as purple mangosteen because of the deep purple color its rind develops when ripe.
In contrast, the juicy inner flesh is bright white. Mangosteen is relatively low in calories yet provides many essential nutrients 1. A 1-cup gram serving of canned, drained mangosteen offers 1 :.
The vitamins and minerals in mangosteen are important for maintaining many bodily functions, including DNA production, muscle contraction, wound healing, immunity, and nerve signaling 2345.
Antioxidants are compounds that can neutralize the damaging effects of potentially harmful molecules called free radicals, which are linked to various chronic diseases 7.
Mangosteen contains several nutrients with antioxidant capacity, such as vitamin C and folate. Plus, it provides xanthones — a unique type of plant compound known to have strong antioxidant properties 8. In several studies, the antioxidant activity of xanthones has resulted in anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-aging, and antidiabetic effects 9. Thus, xanthones in mangosteen may be responsible for many of its potential health benefits.
Still, more human research is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn. The xanthones found in mangosteen may play a role in reducing inflammation. Test-tube and animal studies suggest that xanthones have an anti-inflammatory effect and may reduce your risk of inflammatory diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes 9. Mangosteen is also rich in fiber, which offers various benefits. For instance, some animal research indicates that a higher-fiber diet may help reduce your body's inflammatory response Though this data is encouraging, more research is needed to better understand how mangosteen affects inflammation and disease progression in humans.
Population studies show that diets rich in vegetables and fruits like mangosteen are associated with reduced incidences of cancer Specific plant compounds in mangosteen — including xanthones — have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which may help fight the development and spread of cancerous cells 9 Multiple test-tube studies reveal that xanthones can inhibit cancer cell growth, including in breast, stomach, and lung tissue Similarly, a small number of studies observed that this compound may slow the progression of colon and breast cancer in mice One study found that mice on a high-fat diet who received supplemental doses of mangosteen gained significantly less weight than mice in the control group Similarly, in a small, 8-week study, people who supplemented their diets with 3, 6 or 9 ounces 90,or ml of mangosteen juice twice daily tended to have a lower body mass index BMI than the control group Ultimately, more studies are needed to better understand how mangosteen may fit into an effective weight loss plan.
Both test-tube and animal studies show that xanthone compounds in mangosteen may help you maintain healthy blood sugar levels A recent week study in obese women found that those receiving mg of supplemental mangosteen extract daily had significant reductions in insulin resistance — a risk factor for diabetes — compared to the control group The fruit is also a good source of fiber, a nutrient that can help stabilize blood sugar and improve diabetes control The combination of the xanthone and fiber contents in mangosteen may help balance blood sugar.
However, more research is needed. Fiber and vitamin C — both of which can be found in mangosteen — are important for a healthy immune system 1. Fiber supports your healthy gut bacteria — an essential component of immunity. On the other hand, vitamin C is needed for the function of various immune cells and has antioxidant properties 17 Additionally, some research suggests that certain plant compounds in mangosteen may have antibacterial properties — which could benefit your immune health by combating potentially harmful bacteria In a day study in 59 people, those taking a mangosteen-containing supplement experienced reduced markers of inflammation and significantly greater increases in healthy immune cell numbers compared to those taking a placebo Your immune system requires many different nutrients to function optimally.
Mangosteen may be a healthy choice to include alongside other nutrient-dense foods as part of a balanced diet. Skin damage from sun exposure is a common occurrence worldwide and a major contributor to skin cancer and signs of aging One study in mice treated with supplemental mangosteen extract observed a protective effect against ultraviolet-B UVB radiation in the skin Mangosteen is easy to prepare and eat — though it may be difficult to find depending on where you live.
Your best bet is to look for it at specialty Asian markets, but be aware that fresh mangosteen can be quite expensive.Everyone knows what a mango is and what mango nutrition provides, but have you ever heard of a mangosteen? Benefits of mangosteen include it being high in fiber yet low in calories, as well as having a good serving of vitamin C.
Well, we now know it not only contains an impressive array of essential vitamins and minerals, but it also contains a group of phytochemicals called xanthones. What are the health benefits of mangosteen?
Research reveals that this tropical fruit can boost the immune system, decrease inflammation and even fight cancer. There are now mangosteen Hawaii growers also. The purple mangosteen, known simply as mangosteen, is a fruit easy to love with its sweet and tangy taste. What does mangosteen taste like? This fruit is said to have made its introduction into the Western Hemisphere when it was first grown in English greenhouses in It then went on to became established in several of the West Indian Islands most notably Jamaica and later on the mainland in Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Panama.
In the s, Queen Victoria is said to have offered knighthood to anyone who brought her fresh mangosteens from Asia. Long illegal in the U.
Zriedkavé, genetické a dedičné choroby
The ban was lifted in October The fruits are the size of a small orange, round or flattened on the ends. Mangosteens have a thick, hard, deep red rind surrounding snow-white flesh, which is in segments resembling those of a mandarin orange.
Highly valued for its juicy, delicate texture and slightly astringent mangosteen flavor, this exotic fruit has been cultivated in Java, Sumatra, Indochina and the southern Philippines from antiquity. Mangosteen taste is so unique, you really need to try it to understand it. Mangosteen in hindi is mangustan.
Thinking about doing some mangosteen planting? What are the illnesses that mangosteen can cure? Can mangosteen treat cancer? Skin cancers are often resistant to conventional chemotherapy, but mangosteen has shown ability to naturally fight cancers of the skin. Xanthones from the pericarp, whole fruit, heartwood and leaf of mangosteen are known to possess a wide spectrum of pharmacologic properties, including antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities.
The ability of xanthones to both prevent and treat cancer have been demonstrated in different stages of cancer formation, including initiation, promotion and progression. Scientific research has shown that extracts of mangosteen have both anti-allergy and anti-inflammatory properties.
Research reveals that alpha- and gamma-mangostins are two specific bioactive substances of the fruit that have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. Is mangosteen good for diabetes? OPCs are naturally occurring plant metabolites that are widely available in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, flowers and bark. In addition to being good for blood sugar, OPCs are primarily known for their antioxidant activity. One study out of Thailand compared the fruit to other plants and determined that it possessed the most significant antioxidant activity and reduced the production of reactive oxygen species, two factors that affect the growth of acne.
Mangosteen Garcinia mangostana was not only highly effective at scavenging free radicals, but it was also able to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to acne formation.
Oxidative stress is essentially an imbalance between the production of free radicals and the ability of the body to counteract or detoxify their harmful effects through neutralization by antioxidants. Then mangosteen is definitely a fruit to start eating.Mangosteen Garcinia mangostanaalso known as the purple mangosteen is a tropical evergreen tree with edible fruit native to island nations of Southeast Asia.
Its center of origin is peninsular Malaysiaalthough a precise origin is uncertain due to widespread prehistoric cultivation.
Mangosteen belongs to the same genus as the other, less widely known fruit, such as the button mangosteen G. Mangosteen is a native plant to Southeast Asia. Highly valued for its juicy, delicate texture and slightly sweet and sour flavour, the mangosteen has been cultivated in MalaysiaBorneoSumatraMainland Southeast Asiaand the Philippines since ancient times.
The 15th-century Chinese record Yingya Shenglan described mangosteen as mang-chi-shih derived from Malay Language manggisa native plant of Southeast Asia of white flesh with delectable sweet and sour taste. A description of mangosteen was included in the Species Plantarum by Linnaeus in The mangosteen was introduced into English greenhouses in The mangosteen tree generally does not grow well outside the tropics.
The journalist and gourmet R. Apple, Jr. I'd rather eat one than a hot fudge sundae, which for a big Ohio boy is saying a lot. Mangosteen is usually propagated by seedlings. Mangosteen produces a recalcitrant seed which is not a true seed strictly defined, but rather described as a nucellar asexual embryo. Mangosteen trees have a weak root system and prefer deep, well drained soils with high moisture content, often growing on riverbanks.
Mangosteen trees are sensitive to water availability and application of fertilizer input which is increased with the age of trees, regardless of region. In breeding of perennial mangosteen, selection of rootstock and grafting are significant issues to overcome constraints to production, harvesting or seasonality. Because of the long duration until the trees yield fruits and the long resulting breeding cycles, mangosteen breeding has not proven attractive for transplanting or research.
Co je to mangostan a jeho léčivé účinky
Mangosteen trees may reach fruit-bearing in as little as 6 years, but may require 12 or more years, depending on climate and cultivation methods. Major mangosteen production occurs in Southeast Asia, mainly in Thailand as the country with the most acreage planted, estimated at 4, ha in  and 11, ha ingiving a total yield of 46, tons. The pathogens which attack mangosteen are common in other tropical trees. The diseases can be divided into foliarfruit, stem and soil-borne diseases.
Pestalotiopsis leaf blight Pestalotiopsis flagisettula only identified in Thailand is one of the diseases which infect especially young leaves.
Another common disease is the thread blight or white thread blight disease Marasmiellus scandens whereas the name comes from the mycelia which resembles thread.
An important post-harvest disease affecting mangosteen especially in Thailand is called Diplodia fruit rot Diplodia theobromae which, as a secondary pathogen, enters the host plant through wounds. Phellinus noxius living on the roots and trunk bases causes brown root disease, a name derived from the appearance of the mycelium -binding soil particles.
There are a few pests which feed on mangosteen leaves and fruits including leaf eater Stictoptera sp. Different management options can be applied to control mangosteen diseases.
They are known to recover from brief cold spells rather well, often with damage only to young growth. Experienced horticulturists have grown this species outdoors, and brought them to fruit in extreme south Florida. The juvenile mangosteen fruit, which does not require fertilisation to form see agamospermyfirst appears as pale green or almost white in the shade of the canopy. As the fruit enlarges over the next two to three months, the exocarp colour deepens to darker green.
During this period, the fruit increases in size until its exocarp is 6—8 centimetres 2. The subsurface chemistry of the mangosteen exocarp comprises an array of polyphenols, including xanthones and tannins that assure astringency which discourages infestation by insects, fungi, plant virusesbacteria and animal predation while the fruit is immature.
Colour changes and softening of the exocarp are natural processes of ripening that indicates the fruit can be eaten and the seeds have finished developing.
Once the developing mangosteen fruit has stopped expanding, chlorophyll synthesis slows as the next colour phase begins. Initially streaked with red, the exocarp pigmentation transitions from green to red to dark purple, indicating a final ripening stage. This entire process takes place over a period of ten days as the edible quality of the fruit peaks.
Over the days following removal from the tree, the exocarp hardens to an extent depending upon post-harvest handling and ambient storage conditions, especially relative humidity levels.Christopher Nolan's World War II actioner and Denis Villeneuve's sci-fi sequel experiment with new s.
How Del Toro and his team created a romantic world shaped by water, color and movies that was the pe. Is this the year no TV movies get in the race. It may not be a movie, but it still might edge them all out. Will she crack the top five. That leaves four slots open for the taking and a lot of well-reviewed comedies looking to garner some extra positive publicity.
On the back of rave reviews, you bet he can. David Lowery and DP Andrew Droz Palermo breakdown how they shot the intimate film with a small group of friends. That's because the Army football team does not go into its 3 p. ET game at Lincoln Financial Field in Philadelphia with the great weight of a long losing streak hanging over its head. The game will be televised by CBS.
Army (8-3) ended its 14-game losing streak to Navy (6-5) a year ago with a 21-17 triumph, and it will try to reverse the momentum in the series by turning that victory into a two-game winning streak. Army has not had a winning streak in the series since taking five games in a row from 1992 through 1996. The Black Knights trail 60-50-7 in the all-time series between these two service academies. These teams are mirror images of each other, as both academies run the option attack and are going to run the ball on most plays.
Army leads the nation in running with 4. The Black Knights also rank fourth in time of possession. Navy also uses the run as its primary weapon and has gained 3,822 yards this season.
Middie quarterback Zach Abey is more likely to put the ball in the air than Army signal-caller Ahmad Bradshaw. Bradshaw threw just 39 passes this season, completing 12 of them for 259 yards with one touchdown and two interceptions. However, he ran for 1,472 yards while averaging 7.
Running back Darnell Woolfolk is a key contributor for Army with 668 yards and 11 touchdowns. Kell Walker and Andy Davidson have both rushed for more than 500 yards while combining for 10 touchdowns. Abey has completed 30 of 70 passes for 803 yards, and he has seven TD passes along with seven interceptions. He is quite a force on the ground, gaining 1,322 yards while averaging 4.
Malcolm Perry is a huge factor with 818 yards, an 8. Chris High added 494 yards and two scores, while Anthony Gargiulo has rushed for 383 yards and three touchdowns. The two teams will likely take turns hammering each other with the running game, and the team that can come up with a couple of stops at the most opportune moments is likely to come away with the win. Navy, which has played a more challenging schedule, is a three-point favorite with a total of 44. The key to this game will be the execution of the triple-option by both teams.
The team that runs the ball more effectively with the fewest mistakes is almost certainly going to win.
However, the passing game, which seems to matter less to these two teams than any other pair in the nation, may have something to say. The passing game can't be an afterthought for either team.Even the free version is worth using, but the upgra. Love it that I can intergrate Aftership inside my website.
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Mark Davies was one of the founders of Betfair, the world's largest internet betting exchange, and has advised the Unit on all aspects of the sport's links with the gaming industry. He believes the International Cricket Council inquiry into allegations of bowling no-balls to order - against suspended Pakistan trio Mohammad Aamer, Mohammad Asif and Test captain Salman Butt - should also focus on the opening delivery of the match by Amir, a wide that cost five runs. The ICC inquiry is running parallel to Scotland Yard's criminal investigation which has led to Aamer, Asif and Butt being interviewed under caution, with a fourth tourist, Wahib Riaz due for interview on Thursday.
The delivery in question was bowled by the left-arm paceman Aamer, 18, over the wicket from the Pavilion End to England captain Andrew Strauss. It landed a foot outside leg stump and carried on, with the angle, passing the stumps by at least a yard on its way to the boundary. Wicketkeeper Kamran Akmal, along with Butt currently under ICC investigation over possible spot-fixing at the Asia Cup and the World Twenty20, made no attempt to reach the ball as it sailed to the fine leg boundary.
Umpire Billy Bowden signalled four wides which, with the one-run penalty for the wide itself, added up to five runs from the first ball of the match. Fallen idols: The three Pakistani cricketers at the centre of the match fixing allegations, (left to right) Mohammad Aamer, Mohammad Asif and Salman Butt, leave Heathrow Airport for LahoreThe bowling of a wide off the first ball has long been understood in cricket circles as open to manipulation for spread betting and spot- fixing. First ball nerves and, in this case, the need to adjust to the slope at Lord's means such a delivery is not uncommon there.
But Davies, whose involvement with the ICC began soon after the setting up of the Anti-Corruption Unit, believes that in the light of the current allegations, Aamer's five-run wide should be scrutinised by the investigation, led by former policeman Sir Ronnie Flanagan. Anyone armed with certain information that the first ball would be a wide and produce five runs could make a lot of money on all those spreads. If I was advising the Anti-Corruption Unit on their investigations, I'd be reviewing everything from ball one.
That's why, if these allegations are proven, these guys should be thrown out of the game. I don't see how you cannot impose the harshest penalty, to send a clear signal. If you don't do that you are saying that crime pays.
Warm welcome: Protesting fans awaiting the return of disgraced skipper Salman ButtThey have until Thursday to respond to the charges laid by the ICC and the indefinite suspension pending an inquiry.
Prior to the start of the T20 and one-day series against Pakistan, which continues at Headingley today with England 1-0 up, the ECB made it clear they would not be happy to play against players under police investigation. But they resolved not to make further protest about the presence of Wahib or Kamran Akmal, deciding instead to get through the remaining matches as quickly and quietly as possible.
Meanwhile, England's Jonathan Trott denied he used the allegations to get under the skin of Kamran Akmal during an on-field spat in the first ODI in Durham, which caused umpire Billy Doctrove to intervene. Trott yesterday played down the incident which left Akmal furious, saying: 'I said a few words, and he was saying a few - and the umpires got in the middle of it and made a mountain out of a molehill really.
We just play cricket. AJ smashes windows for new store opening 'I'm playing against a wall. England's Ashes crisis deepens as Ben Duckett is. West Ham 1-0 Chelsea: Marko Arnautovic dazzles to hand. Barcelona could sell five players in January as Catalan. Real Madrid 5-0 Sevilla, La Liga RESULT: Los Blancos tear.
Deontay Wilder dents Anthony Joshua's unification hopes. Tottenham 5-1 Stoke, Premier League RESULTS: Plus score.